Xi-Putin summit: Russia inches closer to China as new cold war looms | China

When the leaders of China and Russia meet in Beijing this Friday shortly earlier than the opening ceremony of the Winter Olympics, observers of the bilateral relationship shall be in search of insights into how this twenty first century quasi-alliance is reshaping the postwar world order.

It was 50 years in the past this month, on 21 February 1972, that the historic handshake between Richard Nixon and Mao Zedong modified the geometry of the cold war. Historians known as the go to “the week that modified the world”. It later influenced Washington’s subsequent motion in direction of détente with Moscow.

But, half a century on, with discuss of one other cold war – this time between the US and China – on the rise, Moscow and Beijing are, as a substitute, inching closer. Amid the unfolding disaster in Ukraine, Beijing final week publicly seconded Moscow’s “safety considerations” concerning Nato.

“This shall be their thirty eighth [meeting] since 2013, [and] is uniquely vital due to the overseas coverage challenges every chief is dealing with in the meanwhile,” David Shullman, senior director of the International China Hub on the Atlantic Council, mentioned of Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping.


“Putin appreciates Chinese language public expressions of help for Russia’s place on Ukraine that show the Kremlin is just not remoted internationally,” he mentioned. “For China, Putin’s go to is a vital demonstration of help at a time when the US, UK, and different international locations are endeavor a diplomatic boycott of the Video games.”

A convoy of Russian armoured autos strikes alongside a freeway in Crimea. {Photograph}: AP

This week’s assembly shall be Xi’s first in-person interplay with a overseas chief in almost two years. China’s propaganda machine is already in full gear forward of the occasion. In state media, the title of the Russian president tops the official list of overseas dignitaries. Earlier this week, the state information company Xinhua in a protracted article extolled the friendship between the 2 international locations.

“China-Russia leaders’ ‘Winter Olympics appointment’ opens a new chapter within the bilateral relations,” the headline declared. The article has since been republished by different main state-owned web sites in the previous few days.


The Xi-Putin assembly shall be carefully watched in Washington as effectively as different main western capitals. Inevitably, in accordance to analysts, the problem of Ukraine will loom massive. In 2014, in a present of defiance towards fierce western criticism over the annexation of Crimea, Putin turned to Xi to search for another. Beijing confirmed its help by signing a $400bn, 30-year fuel deal.

Because the disaster in Ukraine brews, Russia is as soon as once more dealing with worldwide stress and is looking for overseas allies in its standoff with the west. Within the present scenario, Russia “wants China way more than the opposite approach round”, mentioned Alexander Gabuev, the chair of the Russia within the Asia-Pacific Program on the Carnegie Moscow Centre, throughout a roundtable dialogue on Wednesday.

Describing the temper in Moscow, Gabuev mentioned: “China may be very pragmatic and has lots of leverage … China’s bargaining place is strengthened day-to-day, so it’s higher to signal a cope with China now slightly than tomorrow.”

Putin will enter the assembly with Xi trying to do exactly that. The Kremlin is embarking on the uncommon overseas go to with a docket of 15 contracts and agreements it needs to signal with the Chinese language management, together with a joint assertion that may “replicate the frequent views of Russia and China on key world points, together with safety points”.


It seems the Kremlin will search formal Chinese language help in its battle with Nato international locations.

Vladimir Putin in a videoconference with Xi Jinping in DecemberVladimir Putin in a videoconference with Xi Jinping in December. {Photograph}: Mikhail Metzel/AP

“Beijing helps Russia’s calls for on safety ensures, China shares the stance that safety of 1 nation can’t be ensured by way of damaging one other nation’s safety,” mentioned the Kremlin aide Yuri Ushakov, including they had been calling for the “creation of environment friendly mechanisms of making certain safety in Europe by means of negotiations”.

In an article printed within the Chinese language state information company Xinhua, Putin additionally famous joint efforts to develop funds in nationwide currencies and create “mechanisms to offset the adverse affect of unilateral sanctions”. US lawmakers have threatened to impose the “mom of all sanctions” if Russia launches a new invasion of Ukraine.

Putin shall be accompanied by a handful of high diplomatic and vitality officers, together with his overseas and vitality ministers and the Rosneft chief govt, Igor Sechin. That signifies that financial and vitality cooperation are possible to be a spotlight of the talks on Friday.

Ushakov mentioned the 2 sides would additionally talk about plans for the Energy of Siberia 2 pipeline, which might permit Russia to redirect fuel away from Europe by way of its controversial Nord Stream 2 pipeline and promote it as a substitute on the Chinese language market. Nevertheless, even when the 2 sides do strike an settlement, the pipeline would take years to construct.

The summit will mark Putin’s third journey overseas because the outbreak of coronavirus in late 2019. The 2 leaders are anticipated to maintain talks on the morning of 4 February after which have a personal lunch that “will assist them have a maximally open dialogue about crucial worldwide and bilateral points”, Ushakov mentioned.

Final month, Beijing introduced that the bilateral commerce between China and Russia reached almost $147bn final yr – greater than twice the determine of $68bn again in 2015 after western sanctions. Final week, senior diplomats from each international locations agreed to step up coordination on Asian affairs, within the newest transfer that signalled even closer ties amid western pressures.

A map shows the course of Nord Stream 2 on the exterior of a building close to the receiving station for the pipeline near Lubmin, GermanyA map exhibits the course of Nord Stream 2 on the outside of a constructing shut to the receiving station for the pipeline close to Lubmin, Germany. {Photograph}: Sean Gallup/Getty Pictures

“Each Xi and Putin will underscore (but once more) that their relationship is the very best it’s been in historical past and that the 2 international locations proceed to deepen strategic and financial ties, with the subtext being that no quantity of US-led efforts to derail their management or strategic pursuits will succeed,” mentioned Shullman.

Prof Sharyl Cross, the director of the Kozmetsky Heart at St Edward’s College in Austin, Texas, agreed. “The 2 leaders will emphasise their burgeoning bilateral safety and financial ties and customary views on a variety of worldwide safety points presenting a problem to American world affect and the liberal worldwide order,” she mentioned, including that Xi and Putin had been possible to additionally embrace dialogue of the position of Nato in Europe.

Cross mentioned each Moscow and Beijing would stand to profit from division amongst democratic nations and the transatlantic safety alliance in responding to the Ukraine battle. “America and its allies needs to be fascinated about how to keep away from driving these two main powers closer and methods simultaneous challenges on the a part of each Russia and China in numerous areas (Europe and Asia) is likely to be managed,” she mentioned.

However Shi Yinhong, a professor of worldwide relations at Renmin College in Beijing, downplayed the importance of the forthcoming assembly. He mentioned he didn’t anticipate something new to come out of it.

“China has mentioned what it has mentioned about current occasions. Beijing’s statements might be seen as very a lot pro-Russia, however with some main reservations,” he mentioned. “For instance, China has by no means dedicated to any navy involvement in case of a war. And likewise, regardless of Putin’s earlier help for Beijing’s place on Taiwan, he had by no means dedicated to be concerned militarily in case of a significant battle [between China and the US], both.”

For Shi, the kind of overseas dignitaries that descended in Beijing this week is, as a substitute, extra telling concerning the present state of affairs on the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of Nixon’s go to to Beijing. These leaders vary from Putin to Egypt’s president, Abdel Fatah al-Sisi, to the president of Kazakhstan, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev.

“From those that diplomatically boycotted the Winter Video games and those that got here to Beijing, we will see some indication that the world is certainly heading in direction of the route of bi-polarisation.”

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